New Harpirhynchinae Dubinin (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) – intracutaneous parasites of birds.
Bochkov, A V & Klompen, H. 2014. Zootaxa, 3860, 301-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3860.4.1.
Seven new species of intracutaneous parasites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) are described: Anharpyrhynchus elizae sp. nov. from Cyanocitta cristata (type host), Cyanocitta stelleri (Passeriformes: Corvidae), and Colaptes auratus (Piciformes: Picidae) from the USA; Anharpyrhynchus apodus sp. nov. from Lichmera indistincta (type host) and Phylidonyris novaehollandiae (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae) from Australia; Anharpyrhynchus lukoschusi sp. nov. from Manorina flavigula (type host) and Certhionyx pectoralis (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae) from Australia; Fainharpirhynchus legatus sp. nov. from Legatus leucophaius (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) from Trinidad and Tobago; Fainharpirhynchus mossi sp. nov. from Myiarchus crinitus (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) from an unknown locality in North America; Perharpyrhynchus caprimulgus sp. nov. from Caprimulgus fossii (Caprimulgidae: Caprimulgiformes) from Mozambique; Perharpyrhynchus elseyornis sp. nov. from Elseyornis melanops (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from Australia. Keys to females of the genera Anharpyrhynchus, Fainharpirhynchus, and Perharpyrhynchus are provided and data on hosts and distributions of all known intracutaneous harpirhynchines are summarized. In addition, a new non-subcutaneous harpirhynchine is described: Trichorhynchiella myiarchus sp. nov. from feather bases of Myiarchus crinitus (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) from an unknown locality in North America.
Novel and cross-amplified microsatellite loci for the critically endangered São Paulo marsh antwren Formicivora paludicola (Aves: Thamnophilidae)
Crisley de Camargo, Mariellen C. Costa, Glaucia C. Del Rio, H. Lisle Gibbs, Travis C. Glenn, Ujwal Bagal, Luís F. Silveira, Adriane P. Wasko, Mercival R. Francisco. Conservation Genetics Resources. 2014. DOI: 10.1007/s12686-014-0310-9
The São Paulo marsh antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a critically endangered bird endemic to marshes in the metropolitan region of São Paulo city, Brazil. The total population is estimated to be around 300 individuals, distributed among 15 small (<50 ha) fragments, suggesting that loss of genetic variability may affect the long-term viability of this species. To develop genetic tools for gaining information on effective population sizes, inbreeding and gene flow between populations, we describe nine polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from a F. paludicola library using next-generation sequencing. We report on levels of variation in these novel microsatellites and eight additional heterologous loci in these birds. Expected (H E) and observed (H O) heterozygosities averaged 0.72 and 0.70, respectively, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 10. These loci will permit evaluation of whether artificial translocations are necessary for long-term viability of this rare bird.
Potential for behavioral reproductive isolation between greater prairie-chickens and sharp-tailed grouse in west-central Minnesota
Jacqueline K. Augustine, David R. Trauba. Journal of Ethology. 2014. DOI: 10.1007/s10164-014-0410-8
When ecological or behavioral species-isolating mechanisms are relaxed or incomplete, hybrid zones form. Greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) hybridize with sharp-tailed grouse (T. phasianellus) wherever their ranges overlap. The objective of this study was to document the potential for reproductive isolation between greater prairie-chickens and sharp-tailed grouse in west-central Minnesota, a newly established sympatric and hybridizing population which developed following the translocation of greater prairie-chickens to the area. We describe and evaluate several potential mechanisms of behavioral isolation (intensity of display and aggressive behaviors, and vocal and non-vocal sounds). In addition, we monitored copulation success to determine the patterns of interspecific mating. Individuals of putative mixed genetic makeup (based on morphology) comprised 8 % of the population, a rate higher than previously reported for most areas of the hybrid zone between these two species. Apparent hybrid individuals stomped their feet faster than parental species during courtship displays, and their vocalizations were intermediate between the parental species. Intensity of display and aggressive behaviors were similar for parental species and hybrids. All copulations observed involved conspecific pairs; hybrid males were not observed to mate. Taken together, this study documents behaviors that might reinforce reproductive isolation (foot stomping and vocalization) and other behaviors that are similar among the parental species and hybrids that would hinder reproductive isolation (display and aggressive behaviors). We suggest that the small population sizes of both greater prairie-chickens and sharp-tailed grouse in this newly established population contribute to the higher rate of hybridization than is observed elsewhere in this hybrid zone.